The Many Causes Of Addiction And Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual Model

Yet many other elements are idiosyncratic, such as the intensity of the experience of reward and the functioning of the individual’s mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway in the brain. The biopsychosocial model provides a means of considering the myriad of factors that can contribute to the risk of addiction. People often debate the best and most effective approach to addiction treatment and recovery. The BPPS model of addiction accepts there are multiple causes and multiple solutions to addiction. Given the infinite range of human diversity, it seems clear that each person must determine his or her own unique recipe for a successful recovery. Our goal is to introduce the various ingredients that may be useful in creating a personal recipe for recovery. While we do not yet know how these various influences combine to form an addiction, we do know there are two basic types.

When activated persistently, the pain neuromatrix and other regions of the brain and spinal cord involved in nociceptive and cognitive-evaluative processing undergo neuroplastic changes that amplify activity, called central sensitization . These changes result in exaggerated responses to noxious stimuli and pain responses being triggered by normally innocuous stimuli .

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  • The social does not necessarily include macrosocial circumstances, such as governmental social policies, drug policy or drug ‘strategy’ that has a direct effect on substance use rates and patterns.
  • Here, we examine some of the ethical challenges to research, service delivery, the philosophies and strategies of harm reduction, and clinical practice that HAT presents.
  • While research of this kind raises important issues about identity, and notions of health and illness, the outcomes have implications for drug policy, health care systems and delivery, and treatment for substance use problems.
  • Meta-analyses have also shown that 23% of systematic reviews have reported positive trends in depression-related outcomes .
  • The reinforcing and euphoric properties of opiates arise from increased amounts of extracellular dopamine in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens.

These sessions are important for learning how to recognize, address, monitor, and control the thoughts, feelings, and emotions that come with addiction. Often, patients who have found themselves deep in their drug or alcohol addiction for quite some time, have significant issues related to trauma, victimization, stress, and PTSD.

The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine.

“Wraparound services” is a term used to describe these avenues and the “all encompassing” services that are linked together to help someone in their recovery. To succeed, a comprehensive network of resources needs to be utilized including medication, therapy, and social services; thus, supportively wrapping these resources around a patient. To begin, the bio-psycho-social model is short for biological, psychological, and social model. So, the first part of the model, or the biological or “bio” part focuses on the genetic and inherited components of a person’s drug and or alcohol use, their age of initial use, and effects on the body itself. It also includes sleep, exercise, diet, and overall wellbeing of the physical body.

What are psychological factors in biopsychosocial model?

The psychological factors in the biopsychosocial model refer to our thoughts, beliefs, and perceptions about our experiences, our environment, and ourselves. These cognitive patterns affect our perceived sense of control over our environment.

One claim is based on the fact that decisional autonomy, or rationality, is not the most valuable human characteristic, and the individual-as-independent does not adequately characterize human beings . Accordingly, the matrix of a person’s socio-historical context, life narrative, genetics, and relationships with others influence intention, decision, and action, and thus shape the brain. Autonomy, therefore, is not adequately defined just by the events in the brain or the “quality” of the decision being made. Many individuals who have serious addictions live in impoverished environments without suitable resources or opportunities. Thus it is the limited option for choice that is one prevailing variable, not only the reduced ability to choose alternatively. As discussed above, both repeated exposure to addictive drugs and chronic pain lead to changes in brain function that promote continued drug use. Conversely, recurring drug use can also promote the development of chronic pain, illustrating the logical fallacy in treating chronic pain with prescription opioids.

Similar to Introduction to the BioPsychoSocial approach to Addiction (

At this stage, often use drugs or alcohol to keep from feeling bad rather than for their pleasurable effects. It is the integration of biological data and psycho-social, narrative, family information, and clinical phenomenology that will make way for more precise forecasting and earlier diagnosis than is possible today. This is one path to follow for new opportunities for treatment and intervention directed toward prevention. Accordingly, an analysis of the ethical, legal and social issues around other problems of addiction, such as prescription opiate misuse for pain management, may also be examined within the context of our proposed framework. Hunt takes the rights-based notion further and identifies and characterizes two ethics of harm reduction. First, he describes a “weak” rights ethic, wherein individuals have the right to access good healthcare.


Recovery from addicction is a difficult path, but millions of people have recovered. Different tools provided by programs like Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous have helped many people. Therapy also helps with people assisting people to get to the root causes of their addiction and learn new coping skills for managing their mental health. Not only is therapy beneficial, but there’s a lot of evidence behind why it works. Over the years, there’s been some debate about which forms of therapy help the most. By having a better understanding of the psychology and psychotherapy behind addiction recovery, you’ll have the more knowledge be hind why it works and how.

From biomedical to biopsychosocial. 1. Being scientific in the human domain.

Cognitive behavioral therapists highlight the direct link between negative emotional states, sedentary cognitions, and resulting behaviors and seek to alter them in a holistic fashion that allows patients to grow through therapeutic change. This patient-therapist collaboration shakes sedentary perspectives and faulty core beliefs surrounding their ailment and allows the patient to reframe their thoughts and learn from new experiences. Addiction is an all-encompassing disease that affects every area of the person’s life. Substance abuse can lead to financial struggles and relationship problems on top of the various health repercussions that can occur. This model considers addiction as a biopsychosocial disease that requires in-depth, comprehensive treatment approaches to tackle each of its components. The biopsychosocial model can be used as a form of holistic addiction treatment.

Experience delivering an integrated service model to people with … – BMC Public Health

Experience delivering an integrated service model to people with ….

Posted: Thu, 02 Feb 2023 08:30:06 GMT [source]

It’s also possible that you have a highly stressful job that makes you want to cope by drinking or using. The biological component is based on chemical imbalances as well as parts of the brain that are either more or less active, but sometimes it’s bost. To treat the biological aspect of mental illness and addiction, sometimes medications are used. There are medications for anxiety and depression, and there are also medications for stabilizing your mood. For those struggling with addiction, these are all non-addictive medications, and some are used to treat bipolar disorder, ADHD, and other forms of mental illness. If you’re not a fan of medications, some symptoms can be treated through holistic approaches like meditation, which are scientifically proven to change how the brain functions. Upon completing this Home Study Course, participants will have a solid understanding of risk factors, the biopsychosocial symptoms of both substance abuse and addiction, and will be able to describe the progressive stages of addiction and the biopsychosocial symptoms in each stage.

Intrapersonal Contributors to Drug Use

To get matched with a virtual therapist, complete a brief questionnaire online or start get started with a 20% off your first month today. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all.

  • Heroin is lipid soluble, which leads to fast penetration of the blood-brain barrier and high abuse potential .
  • If a family member was an addict, genetic factors could be passed down from one generation to the next.
  • As a point of illustration, Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis provides a helpful perspective on integrating the neuropsychological domain of decision-making and human interaction with the social environment.
  • This realization should help us cultivate empathy for those with addiction—it is very likely that others truly do not know how drugs make them feel.
  • Phelan J, Yang L, Cruz-Rojas R. Effects of attributing serious mental illnesses to genetic causes on orientations to treatment.

The collaborative relationship extended by the therapist, use of core facilitative conditions of the counseling process, mindfulness of the stages of change, and a focus on solutions instead of problems provides moderate empirical backing . SFBP practitioners believe that therapy relies on the therapist’s ability to engage the client in examining their negative status quo and that they become aware of exceptions to problem situations so as to direct insight toward future change . SFBP allows the client to determine their own goals related to recovery, which includes harm-reduction strategies, and does not rely upon all-or-nothing measures such as complete abstinence from drugs. Mindfulness is a novel treatment strategy with roots in Eastern religions and philosophies that aims to enhance the experience and understanding of positive emotions and dismantle aberrant learning underlying pathological thoughts and behaviors. At the core of mindful therapeutic practice is acceptance that the stressors that trigger drug use or exacerbate chronic pain cannot be eliminated from one’s life, but that their responses to those stressors can be modified. Relatedly, MBSR teaches a non-judgmental approach to affective, cognitive, and behavioral states; whether a particular stimulus is positive or aversive makes no difference.

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